The Present Perfect tense is a rather important tense in English, but it gives speakers of some languages a difficult time. That is because it uses concepts or ideas that do not exist in those languages. In fact, the structure of the Present Perfect is very simple. The problems come with the use of the tense. In addition, there are some differences in usage between British and American English.
In this lesson we look at the structure and use of the Present Perfect tense, as well as the use of for and since, followed by a quiz to check your understanding.The Present Perfect tense is really a very interesting tense, and a very useful one. Try not to translate the Present Perfect into your language. Just try to accept the concepts of this tense and learn to “think” Present Perfect! You will soon learn to like the Present Perfect tense!
How do we make the Present Perfect tense?
The structure of the Present Perfect is:
|subject||+||auxiliary have||+||main verb|
|conjugated in Present Simple|
|have, has||past participle|
The auxiliary verb (have) is conjugated in the Present Simple: have, has
The main verb is invariable in past participle form: -ed (or irregular)
For negative sentences we insert not between the auxiliary verb and the main verb.
For question sentences, we exchange the subject and the auxiliary verb.
Look at these example sentences with the Present Perfect tense:
|subject||auxiliary verb||main verb|
Contraction with Present Perfect
When we use the Present Perfect in speaking, we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb. We also sometimes do this in informal writing.
The car has
- You’ve told me that before.
- John’s seen Harry Potter.
In negative sentences, we may contract the auxiliary verb and “not”:
- You haven’t won the contest.
- She hasn’t heard from him.
He’s or he’s??? Be careful! The ‘s contraction is used for the auxiliary verbs haveandbe. For example, “It’s eaten” can mean:
- It has eaten. (Present Perfect tense, active voice)
- It is eaten. (Present Simple tense, passive voice)
It is usually clear from the context.
How do we use the Present Perfect tense?
This tense is called the Present Perfect tense. There is always a connection with the past and with the present.
We use the Present Perfect to talk about:
- continuing situation
Present Perfect for experience
We often use the Present Perfect to talk about experience from the past. We are not interested in when you did something. We only want to know if you did it:
|I have seen an alien.|
He has lived in Bangkok.
Have you been there?
We have never eaten caviar.
|The action or state was in the past.||In my head, I have a memory now.|
Connection with past: the event was in the past
Connection with present: in my head, now, I have a memory of the event; I know something about the event; I have experience of it
Present Perfect for change
We also use the Present Perfect to talk about a change, or new information:
|I have bought a car.|
|Last week I didn’t have a car.||Now I have a car.|
|John has broken his leg.|
|Yesterday John had a good leg.||Now he has a bad leg.|
|Has the price gone up?|
|Was the price $1.50 yesterday?||Is the price $1.70 today?|
|The police have arrested the killer.|
|Yesterday the killer was free.||Now he is in prison.|
Connection with past: the past is the opposite of the present
Connection with present: the present is the opposite of the pastAmericans do use the Present Perfect but less than British speakers. Americans often use the Past Simple tense instead. An American might say “Did you have lunch?”, where a British person would say “Have you had lunch?”
Present Perfect for continuing situation
We often use the Present Perfect to talk about a continuing situation. This is a state that started in the past and continues in the present (and will probably continue into the future). This is a situation (not an action). We usually use for or since with this structure.
|I have worked here since June.|
He has been ill for 2 days.
How long have you known Tara (for)?
|The situation started in the past.||It continues up to now.||(It will probably continue into the future.)|
Connection with past: the situation started in the past.
Connection with present: the situation continues in the present.
For and Since with Present Perfect tense
We often use for and since with perfect tenses:
- We use for to talk about a period of time: five minutes, two weeks, six years
- We use since to talk about a point in past time: 9 o’clock, 1st January, Monday
|a period of time||a point in past time|
|– – – – – – – – – – – –||– • – – – – – – – – – –|
|a long time||I left school|
|ever||the beginning of time|
Look at these example sentences using for and since with the Present Perfect tense:
- I have been here for twenty minutes.
- I have been here since 9 o’clock.
- John hasn’t called for six months.
- John hasn’t called since February.
- He has worked in New York for a long time.
- He has worked in New York since he left school.
For can be used with all tenses. Since is usually used with perfect tenses only.