How Do Birds Know Where To Go When They Migrate?

Hi, I’m Lauren, this is Brain Stuff
and I have a topically relevant scenario for your consideration.
Let’s say you wanted a change the scenery,
so you set out with the clothes on your back,
your innate knowledge of the world and zip all else, no map, no smart phone, nada.
Would you be able to travel tens of thousands of miles across oceans and continents and then get back home a few months later?
Because hey, lots of birds do this every year.
It’s called migration
and often these birds go to the exact same summer and winter spots using nearly the exact same routes every time.
Ornithologists have speculated that birds might use a number
of sights, sounds, smells and learned social cues to get where they’re going.
But young birds making their trip for the first time have been observed migrating successfully with no chaperones.
What gives?
Research has revealed that migratory birds have vision-based magnetoreception.
They can see magnetic fields.
And earth is lousy with magnetic fields.
See, earth’s molten outer core is made up of iron alloys which are swished around by heat coming up off of the solid inner core and by the rotation of the earth.
That motion plus the fact
that iron is really good at conducting electricity creates a dynamo,
a generator of electric and magnetic fields which basically makes the earth function like a giant bar magnet.
North is positive, south is negative
and our planet is wrapped in slopes and curves of magnetic fields arcing in between them.
And migratory birds can sense those fields.
Experiments over the past couple decades have shown that birds prepare to migrate south will align themselves with magnetic south even if you create an artificial south in a lab.
And furthermore, these birds see magnetic fields.
Around 2010, researchers fit European robins with clear or frosted goggles
and found that the birds needed clear vision in their right eyes to navigate magnetically.
Why not the left eye?
No one knows.
Scientists are now studying what biological mechanism might be responsible for this.
The popular theory goes that magnetic fields cause a chemical reaction in birds eyes that affect their sensitivity to light.
So magnetic fields might show up as brighter or darker patterns
spread out over everything the bird sees like a map on a heads up display.
More research needs to be done to determine exactly how this works
but in the meantime, here’s a question for you,
if you could get an eye or brain implant that would let you see magnetic fields, would you?

Hi, I’m Lauren, this is Brain Stuff
Hai, saya Lauren, ini adalah Brain Stuff

and I have a topically relevant scenario for your consideration.
dan saya punya skenario yang relevan dengan topik untuk pertimbanganmu.

Let’s say you wanted a change the scenery,
Misalnya kamu ingin mengubah pemandangan,

so you set out with the clothes on your back,
kamu berangkat dengan baju di tasmu,

your innate knowledge of the world and zip all else, no map, no smart phone, nada.
pengetahuanmu akan dunia dan tanpa hal-hal lain, tanpa peta, tanpa ponsel.

Would you be able to travel tens of thousands of miles across oceans and continents and then get back home a few months later?
Apa kamu bisa berkelana puluhan ribu mil melewati lautan dan benua dan kembali ke rumah beberapa bulan kemudian?

Because hey, lots of birds do this every year.
Karena itulah dilakukan banyak burung setiap tahun.

It’s called migration
Namanya proses migrasi

and often these birds go to the exact same summer and winter spots using nearly the exact same routes every time.
dan seringkali burung-burung ini pergi ke tujuan musim panasa dan musim dingin yang sama dengan rute yang sama persis setiap kali.

Ornithologists have speculated that birds might use a number
of sights, sounds, smells and learned social cues to get where they’re going.
Ornitoligis memperkirakan bahwa burung mungkin menggunakan penglihatan, pendengaran, penciuman dan belajar tanda-tanda sosial untuk menuju ke tujuan mereka.

But young birds making their trip for the first time have been observed migrating successfully with no chaperones.
Tapi burung-burung muda yang baru pertama kali migrasi telah diamati berhasil melakukan migrasi tanpa adanya pendamping.

What gives?
Mengapa bisa begitu?

Research has revealed that migratory birds have vision-based magnetoreception.
Peneliti mengemukakan bahwa burung yang bermigrasi memiliki reseptor magnetis berdasarkan penglihatan.

They can see magnetic fields.
Mereka bisa melihat medan magnet.

And earth is lousy with magnetic fields.
Dan planet bumi ini payah dengan medan magnet.

See, earth’s molten outer core is made up of iron alloys which are swished around by heat coming up off of the solid inner core and by the rotation of
the earth.
Inti luar bumi yang cair terdiri dari paduan besi yang diombang-ambingkan oleh panas dari inti dalam yang padat dan oleh rotasi bumi.

That motion plus the fact
that iron is really good at conducting electricity creates a dynamo,
Gerakan itu ditambah dengan fakta bahwa besi bisa menghantarkan listrik dengan baik menciptakan sebuah dinamo,

a generator of electric and magnetic fields which basically makes the earth function like a giant bar magnet.
sebuah generator medan listrik dan medan magnet yang pada dasarnya membuat bumi berfungsi sebagai batang maganet raksasa.

North is positive, south is negative
Utara adalah positif, selatan adalah negatif

and our planet is wrapped in slopes and curves of magnetic fields arcing in between them.
dan planet kita dibungkus lekukan dan kurva medan magnet yang melengkung di antara kedua kutub tersebut.

And migratory birds can sense those fields.
Dan burung-burung yang bermigrasi bisa merasakan medan-medan itu.

Experiments over the past couple decades have shown that birds prepare to migrate south will align themselves with magnetic south even if you create an artificial south in a lab.
Percobaan dalam beberapa dekade terakhir menunjukkan bahwa burung yang bersiap-siap untuk bermigrasi ke selatan akan menyelaraskan diri dengan kutub magnet selatan meskipun kamu membuat kutub selatan buatan di sebuah laboratorium.

And furthermore, these birds see magnetic fields.
Dan juga, bruung-burung ini bisa melihat medan magnet.

Around 2010, researchers fit European robins with clear or frosted goggles
and found that the birds needed clear vision in their right eyes to navigate magnetically.
Sekitar tahun 2010, peneliti memasangkan kacamata bening atau kacamata kerung ke burung robin Eropa dan menemukan bahwa burung-burung ini memerlukan penglihatan yang jelas di mata kanan mereka untuk bernavigasi secara magnetis.

Why not the left eye?
Mengapa tidak mata kiri?

No one knows.
Tidak ada yang tahu.

Scientists are now studying what biological mechanism might be responsible for this.
Ilmuwan saat ini sedang mempelajari mekanisme biologi apa yang mungkin menyebabkan ini.

The popular theory goes that magnetic fields cause a chemical reaction in birds’ eyes that affect their sensitivity to light.
Teori populer yang berkembang mengatakan bahwa medan magent menyebabkan reaksi kimia di mata burung yang mempengaruhi kepekaan mereka terhadap cahaya.

So magnetic fields might show up as brighter or darker patterns
spread out over everything the bird sees like a map on a heads up display.
Jadi medan magnet mungkin muncul sebagai pola-pola yang terang atau gelap tersebar dalam pandangan burung seperti sebuah peta di penunjuk arah di dalam mobil.

More research needs to be done to determine exactly how this works
but in the meantime, here’s a question for you,
Lebih banyak penelitian perlu dilakukan untuk menentukan secara persis cara kerjanya tapi untuk saat ini, ada satu pertanyaan untukmu,

if you could get an eye or brain implant that would let you see magnetic fields, would you?
kalau kamu bisa mendapatkan implan mata atau implan otak yang memungkinkanmu untuk melihat medan magnet, apakah kamu mau?