Did the U.S. Government Invent the Internet?

TRANSKRIP
Al Gore may not have invented the internet but you can thank the United States Military for it.
That’s right.
You can thank the US Government for Tinder.
The US Government helped create the internet.
Here’s how.
1957, 10 years into the Cold War between the United
States and the Soviet Union.
The battleground was technological superiority
and Americans had the upper hand.
That is until the Soviets launched
the Sputnik 1 satellite.
In response, the military created the Advanced Research
Projects Agency, or ARPA, to develop new military technology and put America back on top.
The US Military was worried a nuclear first strike from the Soviets might wipe out their communication
system, leaving the US unable to respond.
So they set out to create a protected emergency system.
They established computer research centers at leading scientific universities.
But computer scientists needed to connect these geographically separate systems so that they could
share research and information.
In 1966, the ARPANET program headed by Larry Roberts began work.
On October 29, 1969, the first message was sent across the ARPANET from UCLA to Stanford.
UCLA student, Charley Kline, started typing log in
and typed L – O before the system crashed.
In 1970, the Network Control Program was released.
The network expanded from 10 smaller computer networks, or nodes, in December 1970 to 15 nodes four months later.
By 1972, there were 19 nodes linked together and ARPANET.
But it still wasn’t used all that much.
Each host computer essentially spoke a different language.
And most users only knew the language of their own host.
ARPANET needed a way for the computers to talk to each other.
So scientists began meeting to discuss both technical and philosophical aspects of the network and formed the Network Working Group.
In late 1971, the first user-to-user email was sent and mailing lists spread across the network.
By 1973, email accounted for 75% of traffic on ARPANET.
Meanwhile, other networks were being built around the world, but they had no way to talk to each other.
So in 1974, Robert Kahn and Vint Cerf presented the Transmission Control Protocol slash Internet
Protocol or TCP/IP, which acts kind of like a handshake that introduces distant computers to each other.
And it makes today’s internet possible.
But the internet of 1974 still wasn’t something just anyone
could use until Tim Berners-Lee created the World Wide Web in 1989.
So while Al Gore may have been the first politician to really support and promote awareness for the internet, its invention came long before.
And it would not have been possible without the pioneering researchers and hackers who knew computer networks could do more than launch a counter-strike.

TERJEMAHAN
Al Gore may not have invented the internet but you can thank the United States Military for it.
Al Gore mungkin tidak menciptakan internet tapi kamu bisa berterima kasih pada Tentara Amerika Serikat untuk itu.

That’s right.
Iya benar.

You can thank the US Government for Tinder.
Kamu bisa berterima kasih pada Pemerintah Amerika Serikat untuk Tinder.

The US Government helped create the internet.
Pemerintah Amerika Serikat membantu menciptakan internet.

Here’s how.
Beginilah ceritanya.

1957, 10 years into the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union.
Tahun 1957, 10 tahun setelah Perang Dingin antara Amerika Serikat dan Uni Soviet dimulai.

The battleground was technological superiority and Americans had the upper hand.
Medan pertempurannya adalah keunggulan teknologi dan Amerika menang.

That is until the Soviets launched the Sputnik 1 satellite.
Sampai Soviet meluncurkan satelit Sputnik 1.

In response, the military created the Advanced Research Projects Agency, or ARPA, to develop new military technology and put America back on top.
Sebagai balasannya, Militer Amerika Serikat menciptakan Agensi Proyek Penelitian Lanjutan, atau ARPA, untuk mengembangkan teknologi militer baru dan membuat Amerika menang lagi.

The US Military was worried a nuclear first strike from the Soviets might wipe out their communication system, leaving the US unable to respond.
Militer Amerika Serikat khawatir serangan nuklir pertama dari Soviet mungkin akan menghancurkan sistem komunikasi mereka, membuat Amerika tidak bisa membalas.

So they set out to create a protected emergency system.
Jadi mereka mulai menciptakan sistem gawat darurat yang terlindungi.

They established computer research centers at leading scientific universities.
Mereka membangun pusat penelitian komputer di universitas-universitas terkemuka.

But computer scientists needed to connect these geographically separate systems so that they could share research and information.
Tapi ilmuwan komputer perlu untuk menghubungkan sistem-sistem yang terpisah secara geografis ini supaya mereka bisa berbagi penelitian dan informasi.

In 1966, the ARPANET program headed by Larry Roberts began work.
Pada tahun 1966, program ARPANET yang dipimpin oleh Larry Roberts mulai bekerja.

On October 29, 1969, the first message was sent across the ARPANET from UCLA to Stanford.
Pada tanggal 29 Oktober 1969, pesan pertama dikirimkan melalui ARPANET dari UCLA ke Stanford.

UCLA student, Charley Kline, started typing log in and typed L – O before the system crashed.
Mahasiswa UCLA, Charley Kline, mulai mengetikkan kata log in dan mengetik L – O sebelum sistemnya gagal.

In 1970, the Network Control Program was released.
Pada tahun 1970, Program Kendali Jaringan dirilis.

The network expanded from 10 smaller computer networks, or nodes, in December 1970 to 15 nodes four months later.
Jaringannya berkembang dari 10 jaringan kecil, atau titik, pada bulan Desember 1970 hingga 15 titik empat bulan kemudian.

By 1972, there were 19 nodes linked together and ARPANET.
Hingga tahun 1972, ada 19 titik yang terhubung dan ARPANET.

But it still wasn’t used all that much.
Tapi itu tidak begitu banyak digunakan.

Each host computer essentially spoke a different language.
Setiap komputer tuan rumah pada dasarnya berbicara bahasa yang berbeda.

And most users only knew the language of their own host.
Dan sebagian besar pengguna hanya mengetahui bahasa tuan rumah mereka sendiri.

ARPANET needed a way for the computers to talk to each other.
ARPANET memerlukan sebuah cara bagi komputer-komputer itu untuk berbicara satu sama lain.

So scientists began meeting to discuss both technical and philosophical aspects of the network and formed the Network Working Group.
Ilmuwan mulai bertemu untuk membahas aspek teknis dan filosofis jaringan tersebut dan membentuk Grup Kerja Jaringan.

In late 1971, the first user-to-user email was sent and mailing lists spread across the network.
Pada akhir 1971, email dari pengguna ke pengguna yang pertama dikirimkan dan daftar mailing menyebar ke seluruh jaringan.

By 1973, email accounted for 75% of traffic on ARPANET.
Pada tahun 1973, 75% lalu lintas di ARPANET berasal dari email.

Meanwhile, other networks were being built around the world, but they had no way to talk to each other.
Sementara itu, jaringan lain mulai dibangun di seluruh dunia, tapi mereka tidak memiliki cara untuk berkomunikasi satu sama lain.

So in 1974, Robert Kahn and Vint Cerf presented the Transmission Control Protocol slash Internet Protocol or TCP/IP, which acts kind of like a handshake that introduces distant computers to each other.
Lalu pada tahun 1974, Robert Kahn dan Vint Cerf mengenalkan Protokol Kontrol Transmisi garis miring Protokol Internet atau TCP/IP, yang bertindak seperti jabatan tangan yang mengenalkan komputer-komputer jarak jauh satu dengan yang lainnya.

And it makes today’s internet possible.
Dan itu membuat internet saat ini ada.

But the internet of 1974 still wasn’t something just anyone could use until Tim Berners-Lee created the World Wide Web in 1989.
Tapi internet tahun 1974 bukanlah sesuatu yang bisa digunakan setiap orang hingga Tim Berners-Lee menciptakan World Wide Web pada tahun 1989.

So while Al Gore may have been the first politician to really support and promote awareness for the internet, its invention came long before.
Jadi meskipun Al Gore mungkin adalah politisi pertama yang benar-benar mendukung dan mempromosikan internet, proses penciptaannya terjadi jauh sebelumnya.

And it would not have been possible without the pioneering researchers and hackers who knew computer networks could do more than launch a counter-strike.
Dan itu tidak mungkin terjadi tanpa peneliti perintis dan hacker yang memahami bahwa jaringan komputer bisa melakukan lebih dari meluncurkan serangan balik.